Yearly Archives: 2016

13Oct/16

CORPORATION AS A COMMUNITY

A business organization is undoubtedly an integral part of the economic life of a community. But it is not exclusively an economic entity; it is also a social organism or a community. This idea is not something new. In fact, this is the core concept of some eminent management thinkers such as Mary Parker Follett and Rosebet Mass Kanter. The Economist in a series of profiles on management theorists describes Rosebet Mass Kanter as “Kanter-the-Guru still studies the subject with a sociologists eye, treating the corporation not so much as a micro-economy, concerned with turning input into output, but as a mini-society bent on shaping the individuals to collective ends.” This is an idea with an immense pragmatic potential for unlocking the creative energy of a community as a whole.

Management as Community-building

Modern business is not merely a techno-economic system. It is a great human enterprise with not only a techno-economic dimension but also social, political and cultural dimensions. Every business organization is a social system with a political power structure and a set of cultural values. In other words, a business organization is a ‘Community’ and the aim of management must be to not only focus on the economic and market bottom-line but also dedicate itself to community-building. With the growing emphasis on the human side of business and ‘soft’ factors (such as human capital, vision, values, culture, teamwork, etc.), the power and importance of these non-economic and non-technical dimensions of business are bound to increase more and more and shape its technical and economic dimension. So these non-economic dimensions of business can no longer be treated as a secondary appendage to the techno-economic dimension. They have to be studied and understood in their own domain as something which is as vital to business as the economic and technological factor.

However, to realize the full creative potential of this community idea in business, the question or the problem has to be viewed in a broader perspective than ‘shaping the individuals to collective end’. The main challenge to be tackled here is the categorization of the factors that lead to a creative, harmonious and progressive flowering of a community as whole in all the dimensions of its corporate life¾economic, social, political and cultural. This means to realize the community ideal in business requires something more than economic, technological or managerial innovation and pragmatism; it requires social, political and cultural innovation and pragmatism.

What are precisely the guiding values for community development? They are the great values of the French Revolution: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity and the modern ideal of Progress. A creative and practical synthesis of these four values creates the foundation for the progressive perfectibility of a community. Modern political attempts to organize these values in nations have either failed or achieved only limited results. This is because a balanced synthesis of these values has not been found. The attempt of democratic governments to organize individual liberty resulted in loss of equality and dilution of fraternity. On the other hand, the attempt of socialistic or communistic governments to organize equality and fraternity ended in total loss of individual liberties or in colossal inefficiency and massive bureaucracies. Similarly, the great attempt of our modern age to achieve endless progress in the material and economic domains ended in ecological degradation and inner alienation in the psychological and spiritual realms.

The Inner Dimension

The main cause of failure lies in the lack of sufficient attention to the inner dimension. These four values have an inner as an outer dimension. The modern endeavour has laid a more or less exclusive emphasis on the organization of these ideals in the outer economic, social and political life. But the key to an effective synthesis of these values lies in the internal realization of these values in the mind, heart and soul of people and allowing this inner realization to organize itself spontaneously in the outer life from within outwards. This means the primary emphasis has to be on a concrete, experiential realization of liberty, equality and fraternity in the consciousness of people with a predominant stress on inner progress in the mental, moral, aesthetic and spiritual dimension.

But this does not mean neglect or rejection of the outer dimension. We should not get trapped in the dualistic either/or habit of the divisive mind. The inner and outer realizations are not mutually exclusive. The path towards inner awakening involves education and inner discipline based on the principles of yoga. The outer realization requires an appropriate organization favourable to this inner realization and its outer actualization. Both can be pursued simultaneously in a mutually supportive manner. However, without the inner awakening, the outer attempts and methods are uncertain in their results. But until the inner awakening is well established, the outer methods have to be used to create an external environment favourable to the inner awakening.

Modern business is nearing its saturation point in the techno-economic dimension. Endless growth in this dimension will only lead to diminishing returns. For further healthy growth, the corporate world has to strive for a quantum leap from the techno-economic to the ecological and psycho-social dimension.

M. S. Srinivasan

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13Sep/16

Outer Success and Inner Quality of Life

Most of us are enamored with outer success in the world. When we are young and not very mature, we don’t realize that outer success does not necessarily lead to inner happiness or a better quality of life. To awaken and guide young minds towards meaningful life, this relationship between success, quality and happiness has to become part of the core enquiry in education. This article examines this relationship in the light of an integral vision of life.

The Meaning of Success

The first step is to understand the meaning of success. What does it mean to be successful? Jack Welch, former CEO of GEC defines success as, “Setting personal goals and achieving them and enjoying the experience on the way.” I think it is a way very good definition of success. These personal goals can be at various levels—material, professional, emotional, mental, moral or spiritual.

Many people have predominantly material and economic goals in terms of wealth, power, status or career, such as becoming a millionaire or a CEO and regard the achievement of these goals as the mark of success. At a higher level are professional goals, for example, to strive for a progressive excellence in work and occupation.

There can be emotional goals which aim at happiness, joy or building harmonious and loving relationship with people. We can have mental goals aiming at knowledge, learning, understanding or a disinterested pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. At the moral level, we may aspire for integrity, character, self-mastery, kindly service or contribution to society. And finally there are spiritual goals such as self-knowledge, discovery of the spiritual self beyond the Mind, union with the Divine.

The Path to Success

Success in achieving these personal goals depends on many factors. Each goal and each individual path to attain success has its own laws, principles and difficulties. But in general we may identify the following factors as key to success.

  1. Choosing the right goal which is in harmony with our nature, temperament, capacities and evolutionary status for which we feel a mental and emotional affinity or attraction, and as a result, fully engage our mind and heart.
  2. Clarity on the nature of the goal and path.
  3. Concentration of our mental and emotional energies on the goal.
  4. Some form of inner and outer discipline which cultivates all that is helpful to achieve our goals and reject all that is not helpful or opposed to it.
  5. Firm and persistent will in the pursuit of the goal and against all obstacles, difficulties and failures.
  6. Along with firmness in the will, a certain flexibility and adaptation to changing conditions and situations.

The Inner Quality of Life

However, as we have said earlier, outer success in the first level, in the economic or professional spheres, does not always lead to a better quality of life. This is one of the main maladies of the modern corporate life. Many corporate leaders and executives who achieve success or excellence in their careers or professions are unhappy and unfulfilled. Tony Schwartz, CEO of the Energy Project, and a thoughtful writer on career-related matter, describes what a CEO of a $5-billion dollar company told him: “I just can’t do it anymore. I’ve hit the bottom. The problem is that I’ve been numb for too long. I’m honestly not sure if I can find my way back to a sane life.”

This can happen not only to successful corporate executives but also to those who achieve success in the mental domain, such as a scholar, writer or a scientist; even to some of the greatest like Charles Darwin, who in a poignant passage in his autobiography wrote:

“Up to the age of thirty, or beyond it, poetry of many kinds … gave me great pleasure, and even as a schoolboy I took intense delight in Shakespeare, especially in the historical plays. I have also said that formerly pictures gave me considerable, and music very great, delight. But now for many years I cannot endure to read a line of poetry: I have tried lately to read Shakespeare, and found it so intolerably dull that it nauseated me. I have also lost almost any taste for pictures or music. … My mind seems to have become a kind of machine for grinding general laws out of large collections of fact; but why this should have caused the atrophy of that part of the brain alone, on which the higher tastes depend, I cannot conceive. … The loss of these tastes is a loss of happiness and may possibly be injurious to the intellect, and more probably to the moral character, by enfeebling the emotional part of our nature.”

This brings us to the question what exactly constitutes inner quality? Some people associate happiness with quality of life. But a superficial and ephemeral happiness of the surface being cannot build anything meaningful and enduring. Happiness and sorrow are part of life; we can’t have one without the other. We may define inner quality as a deep and lasting sense of inner fulfillment or well-being which can remain even in the midst of the turmoil and dualities of the outer life. Let us now examine what are the factors which can lead to this inner fulfillment.

Infusing Meaning

The first factor is a sense of meaning which gives the feeling “I am doing something meaningful and significant.” Dedication to a higher ideal or a cause which transcends the self-interest of the individual can bring such a higher meaning to our life. This ideal or cause can be disinterested pursuit of truth and knowledge in science, philosophy or in various fields of learning or it can be beauty in and through various forms of art; it can be the seeking for pure, selfless love in relationship; or it can be a service or contribution to the well-being or progress of others or the community or the larger life.

An important point to note here is that this sense of meaning is to a certain extent subjective. For example, an engineer working in a public utility, such as a thermal power station, is doing direct public service and the moral quality of the work is more or less the same as that of those who serve the poor in a charitable or religious organization. But most of the engineers carrying out public service do not feel it as strongly as those who serve the poor in a non-governmental organization (NGO). They regard it merely as a profession or a means of living and not as a service. As a result, they do not feel the sense of fulfillment which a worker in NGO serving the poor feels, though the moral quality of the work is more or less the same. This principle has important practical implications for motivation.

It is now recognized in management thought that this sense of meaning is a vital motivational factor. One way of doing it is to make the employee feel that he or she is not working for an organization, or to fill the coffers of its owners but for a higher cause or purpose or activity which contributes to the well-being and progress of the community or nation or humanity. This cannot be done by communication gimmicks, for example by rephrasing the vision statement in such a way that it gives the impression that the organization is performing service to the society. This doesn’t mean it should not be done but that it must be something sincere which expresses something real and genuine in the organization. Second, leaders who talk about it must feel it and walk the talk.

Total Engagement

The second factor which is essential for inner fulfillment is a certain level of integration between the mind and heart and the faculties of action, especially emotional and vital being; in other words—engagement of the whole being. To arrive at this higher engagement, we have to make a conscious effort to integrate our body, mind, heart and actions around our ideals. The main principle of the discipline is to cultivate all that are in harmony with or helpful to the realization of our ideal and reject everything that are opposed to or contrary to the ideal. There may be many practical difficulties in following this discipline. For example, in the case of Charles Darwin cited earlier, there is dedication, disinterestedness and the pursuit of an ideal of scientific truth. But it seems that emotional being is not fully engaged in his scientific work. This can happen in fulltime knowledge work and it may not always be possible to bring in the emotions. The remedy lies in having an extra-professional activity which can engage the emotions like music or loving relationship. In this sphere, Einstein is a role model for all knowledge workers. He was passionately interested in music and with equal passion loved the two women he married.

The Spiritual Dimension

However, whatever we have discussed so far falls within the domain of mind. But within the mind whatever we do can only be imperfect and uncertain, because our human mind is imperfect and uncertain. This doesn’t mean mental effort is useless. It is a good preparation for something better and more enduring. For this deeper, more perfect and lasting fulfillment, we have to open our mind and heart to the spiritual dimension. In the integral vision, the first and the most accessible mansion in the spiritual realm is the psychic being or soul which is the evolving divinity lodged in the depth of our heart. This psychic being is the inner source of all our higher aspiration for eternal and universal values like truth, beauty, goodness, harmony, unity and perfection and holds the key for an effective implementation and realization of these values in our inner consciousness and outer life. It is also the source perfect integration of our body, life, mind and heart and as a result lasting inner fulfillment.

We may have to begin this inner journey towards integration with a mental or moral ideal, organizing all our thought, feelings and actions around this ideal, with a higher sattvic[1] intelligence as our guide and mentor. However, as we have indicated earlier this is a good preparation but for a higher spiritual fulfillment, we have to go beyond this sattvic harmony towards a spiritual integration around our psychic being. To do this we have to become inwardly open and receptive to our psychic being, through inner purification of our mind and heart, inner silence, meditation, work or devotion. As we progress in this inner discipline, it will build in us a psychic intuition in our emotions or intelligence which will provide the unerring guidance, discrimination and understanding, much more accurate, precise and truer than the sattvic intelligence.

Another yogic discipline that can bring a greater spiritual meaning to our work, whatever work it may be, is the path of ‘Karma Yoga’ of the Gita. This path is based on a spiritual intuition or vision that perceives that all the energies in our individual being—physical, vital, mental or spiritual—are part of the universal creative energy of the one divine being and all our individual actions are part of the one indivisible cosmic action of the Divine Power. The aim of Karma Yoga is to become more and more conscious of this spiritual truth of action and make all our individual energies and action into a conscious instrument of the divine power. The main discipline of Karma Yoga is to offer all our inner and outer action at all levels, from the most physical to the highest mental or spiritual, to the Divine Power which is the source of all action—without seeking for the fruit or results of our actions. In other words, Karma Yoga can transform work into a sacrament and worship. In this path of yoga, the nature of work or social status of the worker has no significance. What matters is the inner quality of the consciousness put into the work which depends mainly on the quality of the dedication, selflessness and consecration. This discipline of sacred work, if it is put into practice with sincerity and persistence, can infuse our work and action with a higher spiritual significance. The other important part of the discipline of Karma Yoga is ‘equanimity’, which means an undisturbed inner detachment and equal regard to the dualities of life like happiness and grief, pleasure and pain, success and failure, praise and blame. This discipline of equanimity can help us to rise beyond the unequal reactions of our surface nature to the touches and shocks of life and enter into a deeper and higher level of consciousness, which is calm, peaceful and undisturbed.

The path of Karma Yoga when put into practice with sincerity and persistence can lead to a deeper and inner fulfillment, greater than surface happiness; it may also bring greater creativity, efficiency, productivity or success in outer work and life. But we should not take up karma yoga to achieve such mundane aims. This path has to be pursued for achieving a higher and inner spiritual fulfillment with other aims coming only as a secondary by product.

[1] Sattva is the quality of goodness, positivity, truth, wholesomeness, serenity, holistic, creative, constructive, balance, confidence, peaceful, virtuous, drawn towards Dharma and knowledge, from where the word sattvik is derived.

M. S. Srinivasan

 

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11Aug/16

Dimensions of Culture

The culture of a people may be roughly described as the expression of a consciousness of life which formulates itself in three aspects. There is a side of thought, of ideal, of upward will and the soul’s aspiration; there is a side of creative self-expression and appreciative aesthesis, intelligence and imagination; and there is a side of practical and outward formulation. A people’s philosophy and higher thinking give us its mind’s purest, largest and most general formulation of its consciousness of life and its dynamic view of existence. Its religion formulates the most intense form of its upward will and the soul’s aspirations towards the fulfilment of its highest ideal and impulse. Its art, poetry, literature provide for us the creative expression and impression of its intuition, imagination, vital turn and creative intelligence. Its society and politics provide in their forms an outward frame in which the more external life works out what it can of its inspiring ideal and of its special character and nature under the difficulties of the environment. We can see how much it has taken of the crude material of living, what it has done with it, how it has shaped as much of it as possible into some reflection of its guiding consciousness and deeper spirit. None of them express the whole secret spirit behind, but they derive from it their main ideas and their cultural character. Together they make up its soul, mind and body. In Indian civilisation philosophy and religion, philosophy made dynamic by religion, religion enlightened by philosophy have led, the rest follow as best they can. This is indeed its first distinctive character, which it shares with the more developed Asiatic peoples, but has carried to an extraordinary degree of thoroughgoing pervasiveness.

—Sri Aurobindo

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12Jul/16

The Next Step in Evolution: Superman or a Supermachine

‘Goodbye Humans: Are We Creating the Engines of Our Own Demise’… this is the title of a special issue of an Information Technology magazine. Such thinking can no longer be dismissed as a mere fantasy of sci-fi. Many influential scientific thinkers such as Stephen Hawking are talking on these lines. The main question debated at present: Can machine intelligence exceed the capabilities of human intelligence, and as a result human beings surpassed by super machines? This article examines this question in the light of a deeper evolutionary perspective.

The Superman Scenario

Let us first examine the superman scenario before coming to the ‘supermachine’ fantasy. Most of the debate on this question of superman or supermachine assumes that our evolution depends entirely on humans, human intelligence or its clones, which is not entirely true. The evolution of our planet is guided and determined by higher cosmic powers beyond puny human intelligence. We may call it ‘Nature’, ‘God’ or ‘Divinity’. This ‘SuperPower’ has a plan for the future evolution of human race, and what is forecasted in that plan will happen. We, humans, as self-conscious creatures with a modicum of free will, can give our conscious consent to this plan and participate consciously in steering our higher evolution into the future or reject it and face the adverse consequences. Legendary civilizations, namely the Atlantis or Lemuria, which disappeared without a trace give an indication of what may happen if we reject or work against the Divine Plan.

Many seers and intuitive minds all over the world and in various epochs in human history, who have developed faculties beyond and above human reason or scientific mind, have perceived with more or less clarity that the next step in evolution will be a new species with a consciousness of a higher dimension than the human mind, which Sri Aurobindo calls the ‘Supermind’ or ‘Supramental Consciousness’. It is a consciousness in which the three aspects of the Deity—Wisdom, Power and Love—merge and where all the higher values and aspirations of humanity such as truth, beauty, goodness, harmony and unity are not mere abstractions or impressions but part of the very substance of consciousness. The essence of this consciousness is a ‘Oneness’ where we can feel the entire creation as a part of our own self, in the very substance of our being, as concretely as we feel our body as our own self, and a universal Love and Compassion which flows from this unity-consciousness.

In this superman scenario, a new ‘civilization’ and a new ‘species’ living united with this higher Consciousness is envisaged as the next step in evolution. Our present human species will be called upon to rise to this higher consciousness through a science and technology of consciousness. If we accept this call and take the path towards this future evolution, our primary occupation will be not on developing more and more intelligent machines, but on awakening and development of the deeper and higher layers of consciousness within us, and above our mind, and their greater powers and potentialities. The key to this higher evolution lies not in Artificial Intelligence (AI) but in developing our ‘Real’ intelligence, which means purification, widening, refinement and elevation of our human intelligence to higher and higher levels of awareness and cognition. In such a civilization, machines, however super intelligent they may be, will have no chance for dominating our life. On the contrary our dependence on machines will be reduced to a minimum and they will play a very subordinate role as instruments of our consciousness.

The SuperRobot Scenario

Let us now examine the other scenario of the ‘superrobot’. This scenario is based on some astonishing developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Intelligence. In simple terminology the primary aim of AI movement is to build a human-like intelligence. Here are some interesting new developments in this field

  1. Stanford University scientists of AI research wing created the first self-learning robot—Shakey—in the 1970s. Shakey was able to analyse its own actions to take the next step. While other robots need fresh set of instructions to complete a complex task, Shakey had the intelligence to create its own further set of instructions to move forward.
  2. In the 1980s, Honda created the first experimental humanoid robot, designed to evolve over the years. Since then this set of robots called ASIMO has learnt to play football, offer drinks, climb staircase, run at top speed of 3.7 km/hour, sense the presence of humans and step back.
  3. A team led by Laviz Brodeck at the University of Cambridge presented a paper where he talks about robots which could build smaller robots, select the ones working properly and decommission the rest.1
  4. With the advent of what is called in AI parlance as ‘neural’ computer and ‘deep neural learning’, robots are imparted with neural action reflex, computer vision, speech and face recognition. They are taught to see, hear and speak by themselves. 1
  5. IBM’s chess playing computer Deep Blue defeated the former chess champion Gary Kasporov twice, which is regarded by many as a major milestone in the evolution of AI. When Kasporov was defeated for the second time by the computer in 1996, he was certain that he was in the presence of a new form of intelligence.2

The Superrobot scenario argues that when this attempt to infuse more and more intelligence into the machine progresses at the present pace, a day may come when machine intelligence will exceed the intelligence of humans. Since most of these machine intelligences of the future will be self-learning system, they will not need humans to infuse intelligence into them. They will do it themselves and also faster and better than humans. This may lead to a supermachine or a community of such machines the intelligence of which will exceed that of humans manifold, and as a result the possibility that these super-intelligence Frankenstein machines will assume control over our earthly life. As Elan Musk, a leading exponent of this scenario says “One can imagine AI outsmarting financial markets, out inventing human researchers, out manipulating human leaders and developing weapons we cannot even imagine.”3

But there is another school of thought in AI which dismisses this supermachine scenario as belonging more to fiction than to facts. In an article in Technology Review, discussing the possibility of ‘super-intelligent machines’ taking over our earth, Will Night states: “Technical progress doesn’t justify such doomsday fears, just yet.”4 Similarly, a team of scholars at the University of Sussex state that a machine can never fully replicate human intelligence, let alone surpass it, because intelligence of humans is not only logic and analysis but also emotion and empathy with an ability to comprehend concepts like trust, intuition and faith, which a machine can never grasp.

In an Indian IT magazine, Aravinth Regidi argues that most of the achievements of AI systems at present are the result of enormous computational power of algorithms rather than on intelligence. “AI is still too much in a nascent stage to consider the possibility of its sentience anytime soon,” says Regidi and concludes: “So far, the so-called AI of today is just a bunch of algorithms designed to interpret and respond to a very very finite subset of data in extremely controlled and limiting environment… Will AI be a better strategist, a better chef, a better painter, a singer? [I]t is within the realm of possibility but not yet.”5

However, there are research projects in some leading universities in the West trying to stimulate the terrestrial and human evolution which gave birth to the human intelligence. If this attempt succeeds, we may have a machine intelligence very close to and resemble human intelligence which is not only cognitive but also emotive.

The Consciousness Perspective

What is the scenario which is likely to happen in the near and the long term future? Our answer to this question depends on our intuition, logic, faith, vision or worldview. My intuition, faith and logic go for the superman scenario in the long term and some possibilities of the other scenario in the near future, if we allow it to happen by our blindness and ignorance.

I feel the superman scenario is more in harmony with the evolutionary logic of Nature and the unmanifest potentialities of human beings. Let us look briefly at this evolutionary logic based in the light of a consciousness perspective of Indian spiritual paradigm.

In this Indian paradigm, a supreme, supramental and eternal consciousness is the source of creation and evolution and all the energies in man and the universe—physical, vital, mental and spiritual. Terrestrial evolution is nothing but a progressive manifestation of this consciousness through Matter, Life and Mind and back to its original supramental source. This consciousness is there involved in Matter, evolves a little in the plant as the sensitive vital response to the environment, emerges further as the sense-conscious animal mind and moving forward becomes the self-conscious rational mind in man. There are different forms of submental unthinking or subhuman consciousness in the atom and the plant or the animal. Similarly there are ranges of supramental consciousness beyond the human mind which will be the next step in human evolution. These intuitions of Indian spiritual thought are beginning to be recognized in modern science. For example, E. H. Walker, a quantum physicist, talks about the possibility that fundamental units of matter could be an “almost unlimited conscious, usually unthinking entities”. It is more or less well known that plants respond to human care and good music and many articles and books are written on this theme with facts and examples but the traditional scientific establishments refuse to recognize it. Similarly all recent research on animal cognition are tending towards the conclusion there is not such a great gulf between human consciousness and that of the more advanced animal species like dolphins or chimpanzees. Some of the dolphin researchers are of the view that this cetacean species is as intelligent as humans.

In this consciousness paradigm, a machine with a human-like intelligence is not such an impossible or outlandish proposition. Self-conscious rational intelligence of humans can be viewed as a potentiality in universal consciousness. According to a school of Indian philosophy called the ‘Sankhyas’, intelligence or budhi is in its origin an impersonal cosmic principle in the universal Mind of Nature. In the course of planetary evolution this principle manifests when it finds a terrestrial organism which is ready to express it. Similarly, an ancient Indian parable in the Upanishad says that the ‘Purusha’—the eternal universal conscious being—was first presented with many animal forms such as a horse, dog and elephant but he didn’t accept them. But when the form of man was presented, Purusha said, “Yes, this is good” and entered into it.

Nature has created the human form and a brain to manifest the principle or potential of intelligence. If human being can create a machine with a brain mechanism similar to that of humans, then the same potential of intelligence in the universal Mind can manifest in the machine. Since most of the latest research in AI aims at stimulating the human brain and the process of evolution in the machine, a machine-intelligence resembling human intelligence is very much in the realm of the possible. Another important point to note here is that in the Indian perspective a thought or an idea is not an abstraction but mental energy. In the mental word, a thought or an idea, especially those with a strong thought power, is a living conscious entity with an urge to realize itself in the material world. The AI movement with its ideal of creating a human-like machine, worked upon by some of the most brilliant minds of our age, is a very powerful mental formation with a great force for realization. If these intelligent machines become self-learning, which means if they are taught to learn from past experiences along with their enormous information processing and computational power, they may one day exceed human intelligence which is the basis of all scary ‘goodbye human’ scenarios.

How to prevent such undesirable possibilities? AI thinkers suggest that sufficient safeguards have to be incorporated into the AI programmes so that these machines remain always obedient to humans. This can be done. But a much better safeguard is what we have indicated earlier in our discussions on the superman scenario; it is to develop our own real human intelligence, elevate it to higher and higher levels and make it more and more luminous, powerful, wider and wiser than the machine intelligence. We have to focus our attention on developing those higher levels of our intelligence like the intuitive, holistic, ethical, aesthetic, cosmic and spiritual which AI cannot reach. In fact, the best safe guard is to incorporate the superman scenario into all our AI systems so that the machines we create however super intelligent it becomes, remains always as our helpers and collaborators in our higher evolution.

References

  1. Sorick Das, ‘Machine Learning’, Digit, Technology Navigator, October, 2018, pp. 95–97.
  2. Anirudh Regidi, ‘The State of AI’, Digit, October, 2015, pp. 92–95.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Will Night, ‘What Robots and AI learned in 2015’ (2015, Technology Review), reproduced in The Hindu, January 6, 2016, p. 18.
  5. Anirudh Regidi, ‘The State of AI’, Digit, October, 2015, pp. 92–95.

M. S. Srinivasan

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