All posts by FDI Team


Luxury and Spirituality: Can they Meet?

The title and the question may appear as impossible contraries. In the popular conception luxury is associated with sensuous indulgence and enjoyment and spirituality with renunciation and asceticism. If we take the terms in this popular sense they can not meet. But when we examine the terms in a deeper, wider and more integral perspective, we may perhaps arrive at some connection and synthesis. This article is an attempt toward such a synthesis between luxury and spirituality and its implications for the luxury industry in the corporate world.

The Dimensions of Luxury

What is Luxury?

Oxford dictionary defines luxury and related words as :

  • Confortable and expensive living
  • An item that is expensive and enjoyable but not essential
  • Very comfortable, elegant and expensive
  • Giving pleasure to senses

We accept this dictionary meaning as a valid and important part of the meaning and aim of luxury. But there can be a broader conception of luxury which includes the dictionary meaning but also other higher dimension.

When the basic needs of the body are satisfied , there arises progressively or simultaneously higher needs of the vital, mind, heart and soul. Cladia Roth, a top executive in the luxury industry calls these higher needs as “soul luxury”.  (1)

If we accept this broader concept of luxury, we may conceive it in six dimension.

First is the vital need for a better enjoyment of life at the physical , vital and sensational level.

Second is the need for a better health and wellbeing of the body and mind.

Third is the heart’s need to love and to be loved and for harmonious relationship or for an emotionally satisfying experience, product or service at the level of feelings.

Fourth is the need for knowledge and understanding of our own self and the world at the mental level.

Fifth is the need to give, serve, or contribute to the wellbeing of the larger whole and care for others at the ethical level. Environment concerns belong to this category.

Sixth is the need to know the highest meaning and purpose of life at the spiritual level.

In general these six needs awakens progressively in an individual in the course of her evolution. However more than one need can be present simultaneously or awaken at the same time in an individual. According to Cladia Roth, most of the new, young, affluent consumers of luxury are seeking for these higher needs which goes beyond mere sensuous indulgence. Here are some interesting descriptions by Cladia Roth on the new customers of luxury.

“More than ever, the desire for emotional fulfillment is key in the consumption of experience. Increasingly, affluent consumers are looking to define themselves by their experiences rather by the goods they own. The transformation economy arrived like a super-car carrying a new passenger: the soul-seeking luxurian, riding an experiential wave of psychological and physical betterment towards spiritual growth and ultimate happiness,with a craving for transformational experiences within the holistic substate of wellness. The transformed consumer expected its suppliers to express and stand behing a set of world changing values – environmental, organic, natural, ethical, equitable, kind, benevolent, sincere, true”. (2)

From Luxury to Spirituality

Let us now look at the other end: spirituality. The concept of spirituality can be viewed at many angles, each one giving birth to a distinct definition with a stress on some aspects of spirituality. The emerging perspectives on spirituality are moving away from the traditional conceptions of world  denying asceticism and renunciation and gravitating towards a more life-affirming and integral vision.

For our present discussion we may take the evolutionary vision. In this perspective spirituality or the aim of spirituality may be viewed as the integral fulfillment of our human organisation at all the levels of our being – physical, vital, mental , ethical, aesthetic and spiritual – through a progressive evolution or unfolding of our potential at all these levels, and a harmonious integration of them around our highest spiritual self as the aim and goal of this evolution. Progressive awakening of the higher needs of the individuals at the mental, moral, and spiritual levels is part of this evolution.

The highest goals and experiences and realisation at the spiritual dimensions of consciousness are very far from most of us including those who were awakened to the higher needs. But an initial awakening to the spiritual ideal in the mind or heart is possible at any of the six levels of needs we have described earlier, which holds the key to the higher evolution of the luxury industry and fulfilling the needs of the luxury consumer.

Let us begin with the first need – better enjoyment of life. This is a legitimate need of the vital being which includes what is at present not regarded as luxury by the affluent middle class, like TV, car, microwave ovens, washing machines, travelling, tasty food and all kinds of amusement and enjoyments, and also what is regarded as luxury by all, like five –star hotels, luxury cars, expensive scents, jewels, fashion products. However there are two types of enjoyment. First is the gross, sensuous enjoyment which when not restrained by some higher ethical or aesthetic values degenerates into greed. Second is the higher aesthetic enjoyment of life governed by the values of beauty and harmony, which refines and uplifts our sensations, mind and heart and make them receptive to our spiritual self or in other worlds helps in our higher evolution. This aesthetic refinement and enjoyment of life is perhaps the higher aim of luxury.

At the second level of health and wellbeing, awakening to a more integral conception of health like for example harmony of the body, heart, mind and soul can lead to a higher awakening in the mind. Along with this highest ideal of health we may also try to provide some clear understanding of the factors which leads to a greater wellbeing at each level of our being – physical, vital, emotional, mental and spiritual – with some practical methods for achieving this higher states of wellness like for example, the healing power of peace and how to bring peace into our mind, self-healing powers of the body, visualization techniques, infusing consciousness into the body, trust in the Divine.

At the emotional level,awakening to the meaning of true love, how to cultivate positive feelings like kindness, generosity, benevolence in our heart and mind, and resolve interpersonal conflicts are some of the factors which can bring us closer to our higher nature and our spiritual self.

At the mental level whatever the type of knowledge or information that is sought, provide a deeper insight into the hidden and invisible realities or forces behind outer appearances or a more holistic integral concept or ideal can lead to a higher awakening in the individual.

At the ethical level, providing a deeper understanding of the meaning of charity and the act of giving like for example how “grow by giving” is the great law of life, and the unity of consciousness as the spiritual foundation of ethics can elevate the ethical need to the spiritual level.

At the spiritual level the main idea to be communicated is that the highest purpose of life is to discover our true self beyond our ego, which is an eternal spark of the Divine and dwells in the inner most depth of our heart, and as a result enter into inner communion or union with the Divine which is the spiritual source of our being.

Meeting Soul Luxury

We are now brought to the question how to satisfy the needs of “soul-luxury” which we have discussed so far at the corporate level in the luxury industry. The first step is to understand the cluster of needs of each customer – or a group of customers who are more or less at the same level of needs – and provide them with a concept, feeling or experience which can lead at once to a higher awakening or to evolutionary progress and a deep inner satisfaction and fulfillment which brings large benefits in the bottomline. Whatever may be nature or level of the need, aesthetics and emotions holds the key to this synthesis.

We are at present moving towards what many management gurus call as “experience economy”. In this emerging, more subjective economy, what the customer feels or experiences of a product is more important than the product as such. Those companies which are able to provide an experience not only pleasant and enjoyable to the sensations but also meaningful and elevating by fulfilling some of the higher needs beyond enjoyment, will be the winners in attracting and retaining the affluent customers of luxury products. The ideal or aim for the luxury industry is to create an atmosphere of beauty, harmony, caring and kindness through the entire productcycle from, buying, long use and reliable service.


References and Notes

1.Claudia Roth is the founder and Managing Director of Soul Luxury.Previously she was the Vice President,Europe,Middle East and Africa for The Leading Hotels of the World known for the largest luxury hotel collection across 75 countries.

2.Claudia Roth and Sue Liburd MBE,Insight Report,Soul Luxury, “Spot light on the ‘spiritualised customer ’,


Igniting Innovation-III Building the Innovative Organisation

The flame of innovation is ignited when the innovative consciousness of people finds an enabling environment to express itself. This article examines some of the vital factors for creating such an enabling environment.

Creative Liberty

Creativity requires an atmosphere of liberty or freedom. Our human mind requires four kinds of freedom for its creative flowering:

  1. Freedom to think and express ideas.
  2. Freedom to question the status quo.
  3. Freedom to experiment with new ideas.
  4. Freedom to make mistakes or fail and learn from them.

Amy Edmondson, in a thoughtful article in Harvard Business Review argues that to promote learning and innovation leaders must foster, “psychological safety” which means an environment where it is safe for people to express their ideas, questions and concerns freely and frankly, and also to make mistakes or fail. She gives the following examples to show what psychological safety means:

  • Ayn Ryan instituted a series of training initiatives called “Safe to Say” to let employee know that their voices were not only welcome but required for success.
  • Eli Lilly’s Chief Science Officer introduced, “failure parties” to honour intelligent experiments which failed.(1)

Creative Balance

Another important factor which needs management attention is to find the right balance between ideas which are oriented towards the fulfillment of customer or market needs and free innovation which are not related to immediate customer satisfaction. In business, creativity and innovation cannot be entirely for its own sake but has to be predominantly customer or market driven. But still, some part of the creative energy of the organisation has to be reserved for free-floating innovations which are not tied to customer or commercial consideration.

If the entire creative force of the company is oriented towards the customer or the market needs, then there is no scope for break-through innovations which the customer has not thought of or not yet in the market. Here comes the limitation of customer surveys or market research. As Robert L. Sutton points out some of these limitations in an article in Harvard Business Review:

“Companies that want to avoid getting stuck in a rut should be especially wary of opinions from customers who use their current products or services, and from the marketing and sales-people who represent their views. Michael Eisner, CEO of Disney, put it this way in an interview in the January-February 2000 issue of Harvard Business Review: ‘Most audience or customer-research is useless.’ Just because everyone loved Titanic, he argued, doesn’t mean they want another movie about a love affair and a sinking ship. Most of the mainframe computer users that IBM surveyed in the 1970s couldn’t imagine why they would ever want a small computer on their desks. And Bob Metcalfe, the founder of 3Com, wrote in MIT’s Technology Review that the financial success of 3Com’s Etherlink, a high speed way to connect computers, happened because he ignored reports from sales people that customers were clamoring for a slight improvement in a popular product.” (2)

In a deeper and more universal perspective we may say that any organisation with sufficient resources, where knowledge and ideas are vital for its success, has to deploy a part of its cognitive energy to pursue knowledge and ideas for their own sake. Such a disinterested pursuit of knowledge releases a higher quality of mental force with a moral content which brings its own material results in the long-term. For example, the intellectual and moral force released by the disinterested pursuit of scientific truth by early pioneer of modem science like Newton and Galileo, is perhaps the deeper source of the technological achievements of our age. As Sri Aurobindo explains the principle in the context of knowledge generation:

“When knowledge is pursued for its own sake, then alone are we likely to arrive at true knowledge. Afterwards we may utilise that knowledge for various ends; but if from the beginning we have only particular ends in view, then we limit our intellectual gain, limit our view of things, distort the truth because we cast it into the mould of some particular idea or utility and ignore or deny all that conflicts with that utility or that set idea.” (3)

What is said above applies to all forms of knowledge including corporate innovation and creativity. One way of doing it in the corporate environment is to provide sufficient freedom and time for creative people in the organisation to pursue ideas of their choice or which they love, irrespective of their practical benefit to the organisation. The management of 3M, a great innovator among companies, seems to have perceived this principle. In 3M, technical people are encouraged to devote 15% of their time and effort to pursue ideas and projects of their own choice.(4)

Creative Time

There is one more factor which needs management attention for nurturing innovation: providing sufficient time for a free and relaxed thinking. Too much of speed and fast change and a constant pressure for short-term productivity is not conducive to creative thinking. People have to be given sufficient time off from their routine work to relax their body and mind and allow the deeper and more creative layers of the mind to come forward. As Tony Schwartz CEO of the Energy Project points out,

“Creative thinking requires relatively open ended uninterrupted time, free of pressure for immediate answers and instant solutions – the best way to insure that innovation gets attention is to schedule sacrosanct time for it, on a regular basis…. This third stage of the creative process, incubation, occurs when we step away from problem, we’re trying to solve and let our unconscious work on it.” (5)

Enabling Systems and Structures

Consciousness and the environment are the two most important factors in fostering innovation and generating creative ideas. But in the corporate world ideas have to move quickly from the mental level to action and realization. This requires effective systems and structures for implementation.

Quality Circles, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM), where employees are invited to offer their ideas and suggestions, is a well-known and effective system for harnessing the thinking and innovative potential of employees. But in a bigger organisation where large number of ideas are generated, there must be a screening and filtering mechanism for selecting and funding good ideas.

According to the well-known management Guru Gary Hamel, the best way to do this is found in the Silicon Valley, where, “If an idea has merit, it will attract venture capital and talent, it doesn’t, won’t.” Gary Hamel believes that Silicon Valley model can be replicated within a company by creating a “dynamic internal market for ideas, capital and talents” and gives some examples to show how it can be done. One of them is Royal Duth Shell Co. which had set up a panel for screening and funding creative ideas. Any employee of Shell who has a creative idea is invited to give a ten-minute pitch to the panel, followed by a 15 minute Q & A session. If the members agree that the idea has real potential, the employee is invited to a second round of discussion with a broader group of company experts whose knowledge or support may be important to the success of the supposed venture. Ideas that get the green light are provided with funds within eight or ten days.(6)

The other organizational problem in corporate innovation is to create systems for effective implementation of ideas on a large and diffused scale within the organisation. In this domain some of the systems and process evolved in Procter and Gamble, an exemplar in corporate innovation, can provide useful clues for managers. There are three organizational systems of P&G, which have a universal relevance for all companies. They are:

1. Continuous Training

for inculcating the mindset, thinking process and behaviour of innovation in the consciousness of employees.

2. Sustained Mentoring

through role models who become project guides and teach the teams nurturing innovative project on how to begin, proceed and progress towards successful commercialization of the idea.

3. Guiding Manuals

Which provide detailed and exhaustive guidance and instructions on the principle and methodologies for nurturing innovative projects from conception and planning to execution and marketing.

The author is a student and practitioner in the path of integral yoga.

Courtesy: VILAKSHAN: XIMB Journal of Management



Igniting Innovation-II Nurturing the Innovative Consciousness

Our human consciousness is the source of innovation. Sustained innovation can come only form a culture that nurtures the innovative consciousness in people.

The Four Factors of Consciousness

In an integral perspective, every human activity has two dimension, inner state or consciousness and outer behaviour, action, results. To be effective and authentic, action or behaviour has to flow from within outwards, which means it has to be a spontaneous expression of an inner state of consciousness. In terms of innovation, the first major task is to build an innovative consciousness in the individual and the collectivity. There are four major factors which need management attention for building the innovative consciousness. They are:

  1. Attitudes
  2. The way of thinking or thinking-process
  3. Development of intuition and imagination
  4. Motivation


The first factor is the attitudes. The first attitude is to persistently look for the new, unknown, invisible, unexplored, dormant and unmanifest in everything around us and in whatever we do. The second attitude is a similar relentless quest for the better. Kito De Boer, a McKinsey consultant expresses this mind-set forcefully:

“To us at McKinsey, innovation is much more than product development or R&D. Innovation goes to the heart of sustaining corporate advantage through the process of continuous change and renewal. It has far more to do with continually challenging the status-quo and pushing for corporate renewal than it has to do with creativity and ingenuity.” (1)

In a more integral perspective the “better” includes the qualitative dimensions like the deeper, wider, more holistic, more perfect or more true, beautiful, good, harmonious. In the corporate world, the better is pursued mostly in terms of efficiency, productivity, quality or customer satisfaction. But why should the scope of innovation be confined to these bottom line goals? Why not there be something like “value-innovation” which leads to a better quality of life for the group or for the stakeholders in terms of higher values like truth, beauty and goodness. Why not ask employees to give suggestion on how to make the organisation more true, beautiful, loving and compassionate?

Innovative Thinking

The second factor is the thinking process. Employees of the organisation have to be taught how to think innovatively. First, they have to be made aware of the obstacles to innovative thinking like preconceived notions and the habitual, routine, conventional and traditional ways of thinking, by self-observation. Similarly they have to be trained on how to formulate the problem or goal, ask the right questions and proceed systematically to the solution or the goal. The other important factor is thinking as a team. In the emerging corporate environment where teamwork is the main mode of working, companies should not depend too heavily on the lone genius innovator. In most of the progressive and innovative companies, innovations happen more in a team than in solitary individuals. So to learn how to think in a team is an important competence for building an innovative consciousness. Let us now examine some thinking methodologies which can lead to innovation.

In general, to create an innovative culture people have to be trained to ask why and how repeatedly until the root cause of things are understood and resolved. Asking repeatedly, “why” leads to the root cause of a problem. For example in Toyota, there are manuals which describe how to ask “why” again and again and systematically until you reach the root cause. The other aspect of this innovative inquiry is not to take things for granted and question the purpose of things like for example asking following questions:

  • What is the purpose of an activity?
  • Whether the activity is serving the intended purpose?
  • If yes, whether it is serving its purpose with the highest efficiency and effectiveness?
  • If the activity is not serving its purpose, why? Can the situation be corrected? Or if the activity can be eliminated?
  • Can the activity be redesigned to serve the purpose better or more efficiently?

The other useful model is the one suggested by quality consultants Joseph and Susan Parks for problem-solving, which consists of four-steps:

  1. What is the problem? Before jumping prematurely to a solution try to understand the problem and define it in clearest possible term.
  2. What is the cause of the problem? Try to understand the potential and multiple causes of the problem which requires holistic thinking that views the problem as part of deeper or larger and more systemic causes.
  3. What are the potential solutions? There could be many possible solution to a problem and therefore try to figure-out the many potential solution to the problem.
  4. What is the best possible solution? Create a framework for assessing the pros and cons of the many potential solutions and arriving at the best and the most effective. (2)

There are intuitive methods of problem-solving which we will discuss briefly a little later. Another model of innovative thinking, more comprehensive and better suited to the emerging corporate environment, is the concept of “Design Thinking”. Tim Brown, CEO of a design firm, IDEO, describes design thinking as a human-centered and customer-oriented approach to innovation. The main facets of design thinking, as outlined by Tim Brown are as follows:

  • Place the customer at the center of the entire process.
  • Identify clearly the problem, context and the environment: What needs to be done? What are the constraints and opportunities? What has changed or what soon may change?
  • Observe the world around: What people think, feel and do? What are their habits? What they need and want?
  • From the beginning build and work with an interdisciplinary team made of designers, engineers, marketers, psychologists, behavioural scientists.
  • Invite and be open to diverse or even contradictory viewpoints, ideas, insights from many disciplines.
  • Apply integrative thinking to organise and synthesis ideas.
  • Use imaged thinking like symbols, stories and concrete objects to make the ideas living and tangible.
  • Build prototypes and test it with the users.
  • Communicate the ideas internally to all the stakeholders and receive their feedback.
  • Create a framework for implementation.
  • Help marketing people to design the advertising and communication strategy. (3)

Development of Intuition and Imagination

For creating an innovative and creative consciousness, we cannot rely entirely on reason and rational debate, discussion or brain-storming. Logical reasoning is not inherently innovative and creative. In our human consciousness, the truly creative faculties are intuition and imagination. In an innovative consciousness, intuition and imagination will be the leading faculties with logic and reason playing a subordinate and helpful role. So, if a company wants to create a culture which can generates sustained innovation, it must make a conscious and planned effort to develop intuition and imagination in its work-force.

Intuition is the faculty which can discern the deeper, invisible and unseen realities, forces or patterns behind the visible outer appearances. Imagination is the power which can help us to project our mind into the unknown and the unmanifest, and from the present facts into the future possibilities.

There are deeper intuitive layers of consciousness within us behind our surface mentality. According to integral psychology our human consciousness is made of three layers: surface, subliminal and spiritual. The surface self is the layer formed around our body. This surface being is very limited in its capacity for knowledge, intuition or imagination. The subliminal is the deeper and larger self within us which is more intuitive, with a much greater capacity for knowledge, feeling and action than the surface mind. The spiritual is the very source of intuition and other higher faculties beyond our rational mind. In the average human being, who lives in his surface self, these deeper and higher layers of consciousness are mostly unconscious and unmanifest. In the above average and talented person, they are a little more manifest and active, and in the genius, still more. These intuitive layers of consciousness can be made more and more conscious and active even in the average person by pursuing a systematic discipline. The most direct method, based on the principles of Indian yoga, is to still the surface mind and turn the consciousness inward, in a concentrated and receptive silence.

For example, an intuitive alternative to the four step problem-solving method described earlier will retain the first step. But after formulating clearly the problem, the intuitive approach will proceed directly to silence the mind with an aspiration for truth and goodness, and allow the solution to emerge from the deeper layers of consciousness. As The Mother of Sri Aurobindo Ashram explains the rationale of the method:

“To learn to be quiet and silent… when you have a problem to solve, instead of turning over in your head all the possibilities, all the consequences, all the possible things one should or should not be doing, if you remain quiet with an aspiration for goodwill, if possible a need for goodwill, then solution comes quickly. As you are silent you are able to hear it.” (4)

However this intuitive approach through mental silence requires a certain minimum level of mental development. We must keep in mind that a lazy, underdeveloped mind full of inertia cannot remain silent, and if it tries to do so, it will slip into a black hole in the subconscious, where there is neither the light of reason nor intuition. So a culture of deep and creative thinking provides a good mental foundation for the development of intuition in the individual or the group.

Here comes the importance of another method for developing intuition, which is to stretch the rational and logical mind to its utmost limits. For example modern systems theory and ecological thinking which views each thing as part of a larger whole and tries to perceive the interconnected unity of all thing, can be a very good mental discipline for preparing the rational mind to receive intuition.

Similarly there are many methodologies for developing imagination like visualization, guided imagery, symbolic metaphors, story-telling, dreams and fantasies of hope and idealism, futuristic scenario building, asking, “what if” or “why not” questions and many others. For example, the well-known management Guru C.K Prahalad asks: why not a dry detergent which can wash without water?

Similarly, Mike Lazaris, the founder of Research in Action asked, “what executive life would be like if you could receive your e-mail in a hand-held device,” which gave birth to the blackberry.(5) However, as we have indicated earlier, for the higher evolution of business, “why not” question should not be confined to process or product improvement but also for improving the quality of the corporate life in the ethical, aesthetic and spiritual realms.

Motivation for Innovation

How to motivate people to innovate? Monetary and non-monetary rewards like cash incentives, sharing the gains, recognition and appreciation, career progress have to be an integral part of the motivation package. However, creating a culture which leads to an intrinsic joy in innovation is a deeper source of motivation. A still higher level of motivation happens when the innovation serves a moral or social cause.

For example at Herman Miller, CEO Brain Walker found that a joint effort with a creative partner to build a textile that could gather and store solar power for low-income communities in the developing world, has a positive and energizing motivational impact on the employees.(6)

Similarly, as CEO of Procter and Gamble (P&G), points out, “People will innovate for financial gain or for competitive advantage but this can be self-limiting. There needs to be an emotional component as well as a source of inspiration that motivates people.” And according to Bruce Brown, Chief Technology Officer of P&G, in his company, inspiration lies in “a sense of purpose driven from the top down-the message that each innovation improves people’s lives.” (7) Tony Schwartz, CEO of The Energy Project states, “When leaders can define a compelling mission that transcends individual’s self-interest, it is source of fuel not just for higher performance but also for thinking more creatively.” (8)

The author is a Research Associate at Sri Aurobindo Society and on the editorial board of Fourth Dimension Inc.

His major areas of interest are Management and Indian Culture.

M.S. Srinivasan

Courtesy: VILAKSHAN: XIMB Journal of Management


Igniting Innovation – I Forms of Innovation

The three forms of corporate innovations, incremental, evolutionary and breakthrough.

Quest for the new and the better is the driving force behind innovation and this quest can be there in every activity, layer or level of the corporate life and in many forms. Let us try to understand the common forms of innovation which occur in the corporate world. This is not a mere academic exercise with no practical values. It helps in focusing the management attention and in measuring the innovative capabilities of the organization.

There are three major types of innovation. First is the incremental innovation in improving the efficiency, productivity, and economy of an existing product, process or service. For example a better lubrication system, which reduces the amount and cost of lubricant and at the same time enhances the efficiency of the machine, is an incremental innovation. The second type of innovation is evolutionary, which builds on what is known but at the same time adds significant new value to the process or product. The compact, fuel efficient and environmental-friendly Japanese cars, which invaded the American market in the eighties and recently Tata’s Nano are examples of evolutionary innovation. The third type of innovation is the “breakthrough” innovations, which lead to a radically new product or process or technology. Sony’s Walkman, invention of the microchip by Robert Noyce and Kim Philby, fuel cell based vehicles are examples of break-through innovations. Most of the innovative organisations have their own classifications, more or less similar to the one which we have described earlier.

Procter and Gamble (P&G), one of the most innovative companies in the world, classifies innovation into the following four categories and measures its performance in innovation in terms of this four categories:

  1. Sustaining, which incremental improvements to the existing products in the form of what P&G calls as the “er” benefits: better, easier, cheaper.
  2. Commercial, are innovations in marketing, packaging and promotion, which leads to greater market-share or penetration.
  3. Transformation-sustaining which brings major, order of magnitude changes in existing products which lead to break-through in market-share.
  4. Disruptive, are innovations which represent new to the world business opportunities with an entirely new offering.

The author is a Research Associate at Sri Aurobindo Society and on the editorial board of Fourth Dimension Inc. His major areas of interest are Management and Indian Culture.

M.S. Srinivasan

Courtesy: VILAKSHAN: XIMB Journal of Management